Catur Gatra Tunggal is a pattern of urban planning in Java that originated from the establishment of the Islamic Mataram kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries which influenced urban planning in Java in particular. The purpose of the study was to identify the old urban planning pattern in Lamongan Regency, which has an essential role in the spread of Islam in Java, especially East Java. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with field observations and surveys to identify the elements that makeup Catur Gatra Tunggal pattern compared to the theory of public space and architectural preservation. The study results found that Catur Gatra Tunggal pattern was still well identified with its constituent elements; Alun-Alun, Pendhopo Lokatantra, Traditional Markets, and the Great Mosque. It is hoped that the results of this study will be used as a reference in the development of AlunAlun area regarding buildings and values that must be maintained to remain a pearl of local cultural wisdom that must be held.

Identification, The Pattern, Java Islamic City, Catur Gatra Tunggal, Lamongan


The Islamic Mataram kingdom in Java, which was founded in the 18th and 19th centuries, has influenced its territory, especially those in Java and Madura, one of the influences is cultural acculturation not only in the arts but also in architecture and urban planning [1], the City Planning applied is “Catur Gatra Tunggal”[2]. In the "Catur Gatra Tunggal" Pattern There are unifying elements, including the Square (Alun-alun) as the center and liaison for other functions, the Palace (Pendhopo), the Mosque, and the Market. The Square (Alun-Alun) is more related to Javanese philosophical and cosmological values. [3].

According to Wibowo & Natalia, (2017) who researched Bandung City Square Alun-Alun), they concluded that the square is an important part of the elements in the "Catur Gatra Tunggal" urban planning because as a public space in the middle of the city, it functions as a public space. a symbol of authority, government power, and the cultural center [4]. According to Susanti & Agustin, (2018) In Malang, the Alun-Alun (the square) is the unifier of the concept of "Catur Gatra Tunggal", so that the Square itself is divided into three major zones of cosmos, culture, and power, although currently in Malang many buildings have changed, but not with the meaning of the space[3]. This study uses a case study in Lamongan, as an effort to identify the "Catur Gatra Tunggal" urban planning pattern in the district.

Lamongan is a district located on the North Coast of Java Island and is considered an important part of the spread of Islam on the island of Java because in Lamongan there is a tomb for the spreader of Islam and a member of the nine-figure "wali songo"[5] named Sunan Drajat [6]. The increasingly rapid development makes the composition and values ​​of "Catur Gatra Tunggal" increasingly distorted [7]. This study aims to identify the concept of "Catur Gatra Tunggal" on Lamongan square (Alun-Alun), whether this pattern still exists and is relevant to the current development of Lamongan. The results in this study can be used as a reference for the direction of development of the Alun-Alun area in the future, what parts and elements around the Alun-Alun must be maintained in value and function.

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Lamongan is a regency in East Java, Indonesia, Lamongan lies between 6’51’54”-7’23’06” south latitude and 112’33’45”-112’33’45” east longtitude. Lamongan is located about 50 km west of Surabaya the Capital city of East Java Province and borders on Java sea in the north, Gresik Regency in the east, Bojonegoro and Tuban regencies in the west, Mojokerto and Jombang regencies in the south, and Lamongan covers an of 1.812,80 km2.

The qualitative descriptive method is the method used in this study. Combining primary data and secondary data [8], collecting data on phenomena that have observations, surveys on existing conditions in the field, and interpreting them by involving various existing methods [9]. Primary data collection is carried out by referring to the theory of public space, the concept of "Catur Gatra Tunggal" and architectural preservation.

Primary data is obtained in books, journals, and articles related to the meaning and concept of “Catur Gatra Tunggal” and the theory of space from the west which takes theory from public space [10][11].

Data collection is also carried out with a scientific approach to architectural preservation such as 1. Architectural Criteria: A city or area to be preserved or conserved has high architectural quality criteria, in addition to having a long time formation process or regularity and pride. 2. Historical Criteria: The conserved area has historical value and rarity that provides inspiration and reference for the presence of new buildings, increases vitality, and even revives its fading existence; and 3. Symbolic Criteria: Areas that have symbolic meaning [12].

By using the theory above, it is hoped that the results of more detailed and thorough analysis will be obtained, special data obtained from special interviews with important informants regarding the development of Lamongan from time to time. 



Public space is a facility/place where the communal life of an area takes place. These spaces can be in the form of roads, parks, plazas, squares that act as containers to accommodate human flow and movement. This dynamic space plays a role in providing a good flow of movement, acting as a gathering center for interaction between people, and as a place for playing and relaxing activities.[10]. Alun-Alun Lamongan meets these criteria, visitors who come here have recreational purposes by using the available facilities, shopping for various snacks sold there, and as a place to socialize [13]



The existence of the square (Alun-Alun) is a city in Java, especially Lamongan, is not only for socio-cultural purposes, but more than that, the square (Alun-Alun)  as a symbol of the strength of each element of harmonization between the microcosm and macro cosmos. he place for religious rituals. And the square as a place to test military strength [3]. Another meaning of the square(Alun-Alun) is as a symbol of authority, government power, and the cultural center of a city, such as a city square (Alun-Alun) of Bandung [4]. along with the development of the times and the shift in social and economic life, the sacred meaning of the Alun-Alun can also be reduced and only functions as a Public Plaza as found in Malang City Square (Alun-Alun)  [14]. Therefore, in this study, we try to review the meaning of the square, especially in Lamongan, from the initial concept of the Catur Gatra Tunggal pattern which was analyzed to the existing conditions.



Talking about the spatial pattern of Catur Gatra Tunggal cannot be separated from the history of the Islamic kingdom, especially the Islamic Mataram Kingdom which in the 18th and 19th centuries controlled almost the entire island of Java and Madura [2]. Although the Islamic Mataram kingdom was finally divided in 1755 based on the Giyanti  agreement [15].

So to be able to learn about the original pattern of this urban planning pattern, the philosophical meaning and examples refer to the Yogyakarta city planning because it has been established according to Law Number 13 of 2012 as the Javanese Cultural Center. [15]


The meaning of the concept of "Catur Gatra Tunggal" City planning then we will talk about culture, the Cultural Concept that is used as a form of City Space. Historically, Yogyakarta was built by Sultan Hamengku Buwono I based on social, state, and functional concepts. These concepts are implemented into the structure, spatial pattern, and image of the city, and the concept of "Catur Gatra Tunggal" or "Catur Sagotra" is realized. A Javanese City Planning Concept based on the concept of Javanese cosmology, which unites 4 (catur) elements of life in one (single) spatial unity. The four elements (gatra) represent important functions in the life of the City, the Government element/leader represented by the Palace / Pendopo / Government Office, Religious, ethical and Moral elements represented by the Mosque, Community economic elements represented by the Market and the Square [15].

Catur Gatra Tunggal is a Javanese cosmological concept, the harmony of micro and macrocosm. Kraton as leader, mosque as religion, market as economic activity and the square reflects culture. The pattern of leadership that refers to religion, economy, and culture is a reflection of the concept of "Memayu Hayuning Bawono", which is currently known as the concept of sustainable development, proposed by Sultan Hamengku Buwono X (2012) [15]


One part of traditional architecture is the concept of Catur Gatra Tunggal. This concept is one of the concepts in designing urban-scale public spaces [4]. If we examine in-depth the history and values ​​of philosophy, it is very closely related to the meaning of humans in living life. The concept of the world and the hereafter is explicitly and implicitly in this concept. The macrocosm and microcosm are represented by four functions, namely worship, market, government and are united by the square.


The square (Alun-alun) in the concept of the order of the city of Java, in the form of a public space that can be visited by all circles of society, and usually there is a banyan tree as vegetation in the middle [3]. Meanwhile, the condition of the Alun-Alun in Lamongan, has undergone many developments, including recreational facilities for residents and the absence of banyan trees.

The Existing Condition of Lamongan Square, is adjacent to:
·        North side : Achmad Yani Street (Lokatantra Hall);
·        South side : Basuki Rahmat Street (Lamongan Regional Government Office);
·        West side: KH Hasyim Ashari Street (Masjid Agung Lamongan and Pasar Baru Lamongan);

·        East side: Lamongrejo Street (Post Office Lamongan).

Alun-Alun Lamongan is not only a public space, but its existence unites the functions of the surrounding buildings as well as unites the cultural values ​​around it, the embodiment of the universe (cosmos), culture, and power.

1.      The symbolization of the unification of the universe (macro cosmos), with humans (micro cosmos), the application of the existence of space in the square which is used as an additional space to worship the Creator (overflow from the Lamongan Great Mosque ), which is usually used for days major Islamic events such as Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

2.      Symbolizing cultural unification, there are public facilities that can be used to interact between communities, the existing facilities are children's play areas, sports facilities, and markets located on the west side of the Square. The cultural area is the embodiment of a prosperous, happy, and prosperous society.

3.      he embodiment of the power that exists in Lamongan City Square is marked by the Lokatantra pavilion, the Lamongan Regent's Office House which is located in the north and the Lamongan Regency Regional Government Office which is located in the south of the Alun-Alun. To the north of the square, which borders Jalan Achmad Yani, there is a field along with a pavilion that is used for ceremonies or official activities of the local government and this field can also be used for daily community activities for socializing, entertainment and sports. Figure no 3.

Keraton and power on the concept of "Catur Gatra Tunggal" in Lamongan Town Square


The pattern of cities in Java is strongly influenced by the Islamic Mataram kingdom where the king's power is absolute in government and city management [15]. The palace is the king's house and is equipped with "Abdi dhalem" private servants who always serve the king's needs including household needs and royal administration.

In the "Catur Gatra Tunggal" concept in Lamongan City Square, the existence of the palace is realized with the Lokatantra pavilion which is also the official residence of the regent's residence which is located on the north side of the square, while for government activities there is a local government building located on the south side of the square. Alun-alun, the concept of "Catur Gatra Tunggal" from the aspect of the power of the leader or government is still fulfilled with the residence of the ruler and his assistants.


The Great Mosque of Lamongan is a spiritual function of the City.


The role of the mosque in the "Catur Gatra Tunggal"  is as an important function in religious, ethical, and moral life [15] this role as well as a counterweight to government power.

In addition, the Great Mosque of Lamongan also acts as a center for religious activities such as the commemoration of religious holidays, and in one of the activities requires a wider place to accommodate worshipers, the square as an expansion to accommodate these activities [6].

Besides, the Lamongan Grand Mosque is also a reminder of spirituality, because it has been busy with economic activities (markets) and government.


The market is the face of the prosperity of society.


Traditional markets are a manifestation of the prosperity of the community, the running of the economy, the availability of basic needs for clothing, food, and shelter, as a reflection that the government's power aims to prosper the people,

The existence of this traditional market is part of a "Catur Gatra Tunggal" pattern so that leaders can know and control the economic situation of their people.

The market concept contained in Lamongan Square is still maintained by the original concept, the traditional market, which can reach all levels of society.


An Alun-Alun (Square) is a form of community happiness.

The role of the square as a public space, a symbol of community culture is marked by its existence as a meeting place for people from all walks of life, a means of recreation, economy, a place for the government to socialize activities in the community, as well as other protocol activities, and also the square as a forum for expansion. Religious activities held by the Great Mosque of Lamongan.

The function and role of the Alun-Alun in Lamongan are still in accordance with the Catur Sagatra Tunggal concept as a unifier of all aspects and life in society.



The existence of Lamongan in the North Coast of Java is taken into account in the spread of Islam on the island of Java. The application of the traditional city order "Catur Gatra Tunggal" is one proof of the application of Javanese Islamic values. From the results of this study, the implementation of the "Catur Gatra TUnggal" is still identified as being well implemented, it can be seen from the traditional market as an economic center, the Great Mosque as a religious center, Pendhopo Lokatantra as the center of government, and the Alun-alun still supporting community activities as a binder. social and cultural activities, it's just that in Lamongan Square (alun-Alun) there are no banyan trees like those found in the square in general as vegetation.



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