STUDYING THE HUMAN SCALE AND PROPORTIONALITY OF GREAT
MOSQUE

IN JAWA TIMUR, INDONESIA

The proportion and scale of humans in the building is one of the invoices in shaping the beauty and effectiveness of the function of the building. In architecture there is a golden ratio as a reference for calculating the proportions of a shape, in Indonesia, especially in Java and Bali, there is a traditional measurement method in making a building, using body anatomy measurements. This study uses the Golden Ratio and Traditional Measurement methods to analyze the dimensions of the prayer room at the Great Mosque in East Java with case studies of the Lamongan Great Mosque, Tuban Great Mosque, and Gresik Jamee Mosque. The results obtained from this study for the dimensions of the existing prayer room with the largest percentage approaching the golden ratio are the prayer room of the Great Mosque of Lamongan (82%) and the smallest is the Jami Gresik Mosque (61.8%). While the dimensions of the prayer room need adjustments to be more effective in meeting the human scale in performing prayers, traditional measurement methods that approach modern measurements are using "kilan" and "hasta". From these results, it is hoped that in the future, mosque planning can pay attention to the proportions and dimensions of the human scale, both with modern measurement methods and traditional measurements which are local wisdom of the local culture.

**INTRODUCTION
**

In architecture, the size of the building is
very important, especially the size compared to the proportion of humans as
residents and users of the building

The proportion of good and correct sizes in
addition to getting comfort in carrying out activities, also getting the beauty
of the facade in terms of building visualization

The theory about the reference size of the
building can refer to the golden ratio which is applied to classical buildings
during the renaissance, can also refer to ergonomics

This article was published in the following journal: https://ejournal.uin-malang.ac.id/index.php/JIA/article/view/17382 |

In architecture, scale and proportion are
very important, proportion refers to the harmonious relationship between one
part and another, while scale refers to the size of one with the other

Research in the field of human proportion and
scale has been found, usually using qualitative and quantitative methods, the
difference between architectural research and other fields lies in the desired
method and purpose, in the field of mathematics

In traditional Javanese and Balinese
architecture *Depa* (a unit of length based on the length of the hand from
the tip of the finger), *Hasta* (a unit of length based on the tip of the
finger to the tip of the elbow), *Kilan* (a unit of length based on the
length of the little finger to the thumb when stretched), *Tapak* (a unit
of length based on the sole from heel to toe), Kaki (Unit of measure based on
two fists with the junction of the two thumbs extending)

This Javanese Traditional Unit of Measure,
when synchronized with modern anthropometry in literature such as the Architect
Data book

The dimensions of people standing praying who
can close the shaft or line of prayer are 55-60 cm, with a prostration room of
120-130 cm *Pendhopo,* and the Market are one unit in
the "Catur Gatra Tunggal"

The purpose of this research is to study
whether the application of the concept of the golden ratio and the use of the
human scale in this case the method used is the traditional measurement which
is applied to the size of the room, shape, and proportion, especially in the
prayer room.

**METHODS**

To determine the human scale and proportions in the
object of study, namely the 3 Great Mosques in East Java, Indonesia, the Great
Mosque of Tuban, the Great Mosque of Lamongan, and the Jamee Mosque of Gresik,
the golden ratio method, and traditional Javanese unit measurements were used.

This
method is aimed at the plan of the mosque, especially in the main prayer room,
which emphasizes the dimensions of the prayer room.

There
are several ways to measure the golden ratio, the first is to compare two
different sizes a and b. Two quantities a and b (with conditions a > b) are
said to have a golden ratio if the comparison between the two quantities is the
same as the total ratio of the two (a +b) with the maximum value in between
(“a” in this case). The golden ratio will be obtained if the long part divided
by the short part is equal to the length of the original line divided by the
long part. A golden ratio is an irrational number with a value of
1.61803398874989484820… whose digits continue to increase without a certain
pattern

The second way is by simulating a rectangular line
that can be narrated as follows:

Lines A and B are the longest lines in a certain
area, to find the width of the field that corresponds to the golden section, do
with

1. Divide
the lines A-B in half,

2. Then
make a diagonal from the midpoint to the outermost corner on side B,

3. The
resulting line is rotated in the direction of lines A-B, and is marked with
point C,

4. The
intersection of the lines B-C is the ideal width according to the calculation
of the golden section.

Following these two methods, it is used as a method
to find the ideal dimension based on the golden section.

While the third method uses traditional Javanese
measurement units based on anthropometry of certain body parts (anatomy) and
has the following units

1. Depa
= __+__ 1,70 m

2. Hasta = __+__ 0,4 m

3. Kilan
= __+__ 0,2 m

4. Tapak
= __+__ 0,28 m

5. Kaki
= __+__ 0,3 m

The traditional
dimensions will be used to analyze the dimensions of the prayer rooms in the
Lamongan Great Mosque, Tuban Great Mosque, and
Gresik Jamee Mosque.

If the
anthropometric human body measurements as in figures 1 and 2 are converted to
Traditional Size units, they will become a unit in table 2:

The next step is
the body size of the activities in the prayer (figures 1 and 2) will be
compared with the existing dimensions of the prayer room, intending to know the
ideal dimensions that can be suggested in the prayer room at the Great Mosque
so that the main activities in the prayer room are more effective and
appropriate with need.

baca juga:

THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE PATTERN OF JAVA ISLAMIC CITY CATUR GATRA TUNGGAL IN LAMONGAN

### **DISCUSSION**

**CASE STUDY **

**The Great Mosque
Of Lamongan**

The Great Mosque of
Lamongan was built around 1908 AD

**The Great Mosque
of Tuban**

The Great Mosque of Tuban was built in 1894

**The Jamee Mosque
of Gresik**

The Jamee Mosque of Gresik, built-in 1756

**Floor Plan
Analysis Through human Scale Study With Golden Ratio **

**The Great Mosque
Of Lamongan**

The Lamongan Great Mosque has a main prayer
room in the initial building with dimensions of 18.5 x 21 m. according to the
golden section analysis.

The plan of the Great Mosque has the longest
side of 21 m, if using line analysis, it is found that the appropriate
dimension of the golden section is 12.97 m. and if using the ratio then
21/12.97 = 1.619 which is close to the value of the golden section ratio. This
is also by the additional prayer room because it has the same dimensions as the
long side, which is 21 m.

baca juga:

MORFOLOGI ARSITEKTUR DAN TRANSFORMASI FISIK MASJID AGUNG LAMONGAN

** **

**The Great Mosque
of Tuban**

In the plan of the main prayer room of the
Great Mosque of Tuban with the longest side of 23.1 m, if analyzed using the
intersection of the golden section, the ideal dimension is 23.1 x 14.25 which
is found in figure 15 which is green.

In an additional prayer room with the longest side being 14.6 m, the ideal dimensions for the floor plan are 14.6 m x 9.02 as shown in figure 16 green squares.

The ratio between the main prayer room plan
calculated based on the golden section is 23.1/14.25 = 1.621 and that of the
additional prayer room 14.6/9.02 = 1.618. The result of the division is close
to the golden ratio of 1.618.

**The Jamee Mosque
of Gresik**

At the The Jamee Mosque of Gresik, it has a square
plan shape, with dimensions of 20 x 20 m, by analysis using a square side that
has a length of 20 m, the following analysis is obtained:

From the results of the
intersection of the analysis lines of the golden section, it was found that the
ideal dimension for the 20 m long side is 12.36 m. in other words the ratio
between 20/12.36 is 1.618 which is close to the golden ratio.

**Floor plan
analysis through human scale study with anthropometry and traditional
measurements**

Analysis using
anthropometrics is used to find the ideal dimensions based on the size of the
human body, it is known from the literature study above that the needs of
individuals in the prayer room for their activities require dimensions of 80 cm
x 120 cm, as shown in Table 3.

The size converted in
traditional depot units is rounded up, because in traditional units it cannot
be divided into more detailed measurements because it only relies on body parts.
So that the size becomes simpler as in Table 4.

**The Great Mosque
Of Lamongan**

The Great Mosque of
Lamongan has dimensions of a prayer room with dimensions of 21 m and 18.85 m
for the prayer room in the middle and 21 m x 15.8 m for the prayer room on the
west side, meaning that 21 m dimensions are used to count the number of people
in a row (shaft). while at 18.85 m and 15.8 m, it is used to calculate the
number of rows (shafts). So it can be concluded in Table 5 below:

From table 5, it can be
calculated that the long side of the central prayer room of the Great Lamongan
mosque has dimensions of 18.85 m, it is obtained 15.71 rows (shafts) with 35
people to be able to stand and 26.25 people in a sitting position in each row
(shaft). . If to be able to complete the number of rows, it can be recommended
dimensions from 18.85 to 19.20, so that the dimensions of the prayer room
become 21 m x 19. 20 m. which can accommodate 16 rows (shaft) and 35 people for
each row (shaft) figure 18.

As for the western prayer
room, which has dimensions of 15.8 m, there are 13.17 rows (shafts) with 35
people standing and 26.25 people sitting in each row (shaft). If to complete
the line, the recommended prayer room dimensions are 21 m x 15.6 m.

While in table 6. It is
explained that the conversion of the dimensions of the prayer room to
traditional units that are close to the size according to the literature is to
use the measurement method with cubits and kilns, which can get 35 people in
one row (shaft) in both the central and western prayer rooms, 13, 17 rows
(shafts) for the west prayer room and 15.71 rows (shafts) in the central prayer
room.

**The Great Mosque
of Tuban**

At the Great Mosque of
Tuban, the dimensions of the prayer room are 23.1 m x 20.9 m. with the sense
that 20.9 m is used to calculate the number of rows (shafts), while on the side
of the dimension 23.1 m is used to count people in rows (shafts). And the
additional prayer room has dimensions of 13.5 m x 14.6 m, with a side of 14.6 m
to determine the number of people in each row and 13.5 m to determine the
number of rows. The calculation of the number of rows and the number of people
in each row can be concluded from table 7 below.

Table 7 shows that the
main prayer room can accommodate 38.35 people in each row, and can make 17.42
rows in the prayer room, while the additional room can accommodate 24.33 people
in each row and can make 11.25 people. line in the prayer room. The results of
the above analysis can produce recommendations for effective dimensions for the
prayer room, the main prayer room is 23.4 m x 21.6 m which can accommodate 39
people in each row (shaft) and 17 rows (shaft). While the additional prayer
room on the right and left sides of the ideal dimension is 15 m x 14.4 m which
can accommodate 25 people in each row and 12 rows (shaft), which can be
simulated in figure 19.

In table 8 it is known
that the traditional measurement method that is close to the dimensions of
activity needs is using cubits and kilns, in the main prayer room produces 38.5
people in one row (shaft) and produces 17.42 rows and in the additional prayer
room, it produces 24.33 people. in each row (shaft) and 11.25 rows (shaft) in
the room.

**The Jamee Mosque
of Gresik**

** **

The Jamee Mosque of
Gresik has the dimensions of a prayer room with dimensions of 20 m and 20 m,
meaning that 20 m has the same dimensions to calculate the number of rows
(shafts) and the number of people in each row.

From the analysis in
table 9, it is found that the prayer room can accommodate 33.33 people in each
row (shaft) and can form 16.67 rows (shaft).

The recommended
dimensions for the room to be effective are 20.4 m x 20.4 m so that it can
accommodate 34 people and make 17 rows (figure 17).

in table 10 it is known
that the traditional measurement method is the same as the previous mosque,
namely using cubits and kilns, in the main prayer room produces 33.33 people in
one row (shaft) and produces 16.67 rows.

** **

**CONCLUSION**

In addition to being
adapted to the function of the activity in the mosque, the beauty of the design
in it, the human scale, and proportions greatly affect the size of the prayer
room, from the research above.

The dimensions of the
plan which refers to the golden ratio of the rectangular plan, having the
longest and shortest sides when divided will produce an irrational number of
1.618. In Table 11 it is found that the one with the largest percentage for the
golden ratio is the western prayer room at the Lamongan Great Mosque with 82%.
While the smallest is the Jami Gresik Mosque Prayer Room, which is 61.8%.

The floor plans of the
Great Mosque of Lamongan, the Great Mosque of Tuban, and The Jamee Mosque of
Gresik, have dimensions that do not meet the criteria of the comparison of the
golden ratio and human scale. If referring to the golden ratio and human scale,
the adjustment of the dimensions of the prayer room plan is contained in table
12:

The traditional
measurement method in the mosque's prayer room is more effective using
"hasta" and "kilan", this is because the results of the
division of the number of prayer rooms are almost the same as the distribution
using modern measurements found in the literature, while for "depo"
and "kaki" have the same results. the division of the number of
prayer rooms is less and “pecak” has the result of dividing the number of
prayer rooms more.

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